Urban and landscape architecture: discovering different directions
Every type of architecture involves planning, design, management, and maintenance of different buildings and constructions. The two most popular directions in this field are connected with designing natural environments and cities. No wonder urban and landscape architecture take lots of architects’ work and are the most popular types.
The development of design and shaping of cities, towns, settlements to provide residents with necessary services is known as urban architecture. This direction in architecture deals with groups of constructions, infrastructure, streets, design of public spaces, districts, etc. It is closely connected with related professions like engineering, landscape design, urban planning, etc.
The history of the urban architecture dates back centuries. The basics of modern urban design originate from the era of the Renaissance. Many cities founded by colonists had perfect design and were thoroughly planned before construction. Later, this architecture direction was influenced by pandemics, comfort of living, distribution of light, etc. The beginning of the 19th century encouraged architects to benefit from landscape design as a part of urban architectural projects.
The art of creating and shaping cities
When an architect develops an urban design, he or she works on the projects of public spaces, transportation systems, buildings, facilities, etc. A professional creates a new space providing it with a unique form, shape, and character so that this project could be functional and appealing.
The main goal of urban architectural design is to connect people who got used to living in movement with places and nature. It is the only type or architecture that not only provides space with a unique appearance but also makes it comfortable, environmentally friendly, socially appealing.
The design of outdoor areas and landmarks aimed at achieving aesthetic and functional outcomes is known as landscape architecture. An architect develops a design and detailed engineering of different structures meant for general use.
Landscape architecture involves different sub-categories of professional and licensed design, development of the site plan, restoration of the environment, creation of park, recreation and urban plans, etc. This discipline includes multiple fields including geography, sociology, botany, engineering, ecology, fine arts, and many others. What can landscape architects work on? The range of projects is quite various:
- Parks and parkways;
- Street alignments;
- Terraces and balconies;
- Botanical and zoological gardens;
- Campuses and design of residential infrastructure;
- Improving wilderness areas and their maintenance, etc.
An architect can develop an overall design of the project and a plan with detailed drawings and technical specifications. They also make necessary assessments, deal with contract authorization and supervision, prepare project models, etc.
The development of the landscaping architecture design
What makes landscaping gardening different from other directions? There are several things characteristic of it including a necessity to develop a 3D spatial organization of the territory, consideration of natural light, and many other points. The development of the landscaping project takes several steps:
- Making a screening of the target area.
- Development and analysis of the main conception zone.
- Identifying dominant features, historical peculiarities, distinctive elements, etc.
- Landscape and cultural environmental considerations.
- Defining landscape characteristics and values.
In general, the development of such architectural designs is complex and involves multiple stages. The most prominent projects include The Patio of the Oranges at the Seville Cathedral, Ryoan Ji, Kyoto zen garden, The One Hundred Fountain (Le Centro Fontane) at the Villa d'Este, Tivoli, Italy, and others.
Both landscape and urban architectural design are meant to make large areas perfect for people and it sets challenging tasks for architects, especially in the modern technology-oriented world.